Practical Export Information

The interest in exports and imports, the efforts of individuals and firms to make exports have increased exponentially in recent years. As global communication, sales, marketing and logistics processes become easier and costs decrease, it becomes easier to start exporting as the procedures regulating foreign trade become easier.

With the increase of the sites that can be advertised on the internet, the person who manufactures something in his home with his own manual labor, even with his own handicraft, can find a customer from the other end of the world and sell his products without even a company owner.

Exports create a chance for small entrepreneurs to do business in the global market at minimum costs, opportunities for growth for small companies, economic crises and stagnations in the local market for large firms, selling goods to different geographies.

Who Can Export
To set up a company to export, Real people can export
Legal or real persons with tax numbers can export. Any person who is not a real person, who is not an owner of a company, has a duty to hold a tax number, hold an accountant, give a proxy to a customs broker and become a member of an exporter union operating in the region.

How Real People Export
Once a real person has fulfilled the conditions mentioned above, in order to sell the products from abroad to a customer abroad, ie to export, the customs procedures to be prepared by the customs consultant, which he authorizes, shall be submitted to the customs office where the export will be made and the export procedures are completed.

Benefits of Starting Export as a Legal Entity
Real persons can export. However, if you see this as a business, not a one-time, you will be more advantageous to export by establishing a company. In this way, you can get VAT refunds and benefit from the various supports provided by the government to the exporting companies. On the other hand, it is important for a person with an export target to see at least one individual company and to see that their customers are dealing with a company.

Which Exporters’ Association
You can register for an exporter union in your area or in accordance with your product group. For example, a company located in Istanbul may register with the “Istanbul Exporters Association Örneğin. A textile company based in Istanbul will need to register to Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters Association. Aegean Exporters ‘Association, Istanbul Exporters’ Association, Istanbul Mining and Metals Exporters ‘Association, Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporters’ Association, Mediterranean Exporters ‘Association, Western Mediterranean Exporters’ Association, Denizli Exporters ‘Association, Eastern Anatolia Exporters’ Association, Eastern Black Sea Exporters ‘Association, Southeastern Anatolian Exporters’ Association , Black Sea Exporters’ Association, Central Anatolian Exporters’ Associations, Uludağ Exporters’ Associations.

How to Register for Exporters’ Associations, Which Documents are Required
Real or legal persons who will export for the first time should apply to the exporters union operating in their region with the documents listed below.

signature declaration (real persons), signature circular (legal entities), activity certificate (legal entities), trade registry newspaper (legal entities), tax liability letter (legal entities), power of attorney (to make transactions through representation), the identity of the real person or the legal person, ie the identity document of the company authorities


How to work with customs consultant, how to choose customs counselor.
The customs counselor, with your proxy, are authorized to make a declaration on your behalf at the customs within a period of time you determine. You can work with a customs counselor in your city, where your workplace is located and you will be shipping. If you make deliveries using different locations, with offices in Turkey’s port city, it may be more advantageous to work with a customs brokers that operate nationally.

Export-oriented Sales and Marketing Studies
Export is basically a sale of a good or service to another country. Therefore, it requires international sales and marketing efforts in order to be able to export and maintain. There are a number of ways to find customers for companies including market researches, B2B sites and online catalogs for potential customers, posting advertisements and customer visits, e-mail and telephone communications, catalogs and sample submissions. However, this guide covers the process from the initial price and bid stage to assuming that you have found a potential customer in your export merchandise, until the export goods reach your customer’s warehouses.

Step Export How To – Export Guide
In this guideline, which is prepared for the companies that want to start exporting, how and in which order do the export stages take place step by step in an export operation? Which documents are used in the export operation?

How to organize the shipment, when and how the customs procedures will be done by whom we will see the item matter.

Stage 1: Proposal and negotiation phase between exporter and importer
Even the first negotiations between the exporter, the seller, the importer and the buyer, are made by e-mail in order to be written and registered, even if you are on the phone or face to face.

If the exporter company presents the properties of the goods, the quantity of the goods to be sold, kg, m2 and the offerings which are used in pricing, and submit the proposal to the approval of the buyer, ie the importer, and if the consensus is reached, the purchase order and / or stamp it is the healthiest way to obtain approved proforma.

The proforma invoice should include a complete description of the product to be exported and any technical details, if any, in a way that will not leave any conflict. Again, export, termin, delivery address, both companies name, address and contact details should be such as sections.

It is binding on both companies that the general rules of the trade between the two companies, the expectations of the parties and the solution and penalties of possible disputes are made. For example, if a buyer who orders with the deadline has to specify the deadline for the delay and the exporter accepts it at the latest, and the exporter accepts this, delays in the production process of the exporter and if the exporter organizes the deliveries, it requires.

1a – Incoterms, s Determination of Delivery Method 1
In order to use a common language in the export proposal form or profor, it is necessary to state the delivery forms (Incoterms) and the incoterms to be used. For example, if a company based in Izmir has given a price to ISTANBUL port delivery, it should open a line titled “Delivery terms buraya in the form of a proforma or offer and state it as ver Incoterms FOB iSTANBUL Örneğin.

1b – Payment Terms,, Specifying the form of payment 1
In your export offer form or profile, open a line titled “Payment Terms İhracat. For example, if you work in advance, you should write In Cash In Advanced ”here.

1c – Bank Details, “Bank Information 1
It is useful that the bank account information that the exporter company wants to make the payment to be included in the proforma invoice. At a point in the invoice, a line titled bir Bank Details “will be opened to enter these details.

Stage 2: Production, Supply, Preparation for Shipment Period
The exporter company may be the manufacturer or supplier of the products to be sold. The products subject to the order must be prepared at the end of the production and procurement process, if there are any quality documents and / or technical documents required in the country and in the country to be exported, customs procedures and subsequent stages. If the buyer has different demands, such as packaging, packaging, pallet or case.

3rd Stage: Shipment, Exit Customs Procedures
Considering the dispatch date of the products, if the export is done with Ex-works or Incoterms F group incoterms, the Buyer should be informed to organize the vehicle. For Exworks shipments, the customs operations in the exporter’s country also belong to the buyer.

In the general application, the buyer pays this amount or the line is added to the bill as customs expenses. The exporter company organizes inland transportation if the F group exports will be loaded at a port. It provides the buyer with a list of packages and provides the necessary information to prepare a bill of lading or CMR.
In the export of the Incoterms C group, the exporter company undertakes to carry the material to a port or address in the country of the buyer.
In the case of Incoterms D group exports, the exporter is responsible for all costs incurred to pay for local taxes, including customs clearance in the recipient’s country and DDP exports.

4th Stage: Documents Required by the Exporter
The exporter company prepares e-invoices, English invoices and packages for customs clearance in its own country and for the completion of customs procedures in the buyer’s country. On the other hand, it shares the information necessary for the customs consultant to prepare documents such as origin, ATR, EUR1, etc.

  • e-invoice (required)
  • English Billing (Required)
  • Package List (Required)
  • Certificate of Origin (Compulsory)
  • A.TR, EUR.1 (Provides tax exemption for exports to the relevant countries)

For cargoes to be carried by ship or airplane, CMR is prepared for cargoes to be consigned with freight. These documents are prepared by the transport company, the exporter company, the product name, GTIP number, quantity, weight, number of containers, shipping address, buyer’s contact details should be shared with the shipper and check the draft of the documents and confirm.

Stage 5: Exporting the Export Document Set to the Buyer
The bill of lading prepared by the carrier according to the information received from the exporter by the carrier is rak Bill of Ladin dan. When the shipment is carried out and the ship leaves the port in the export country, it is the most valuable document among the loading documents and it has the ability to transfer the ownership of the property with the turnover.

5a-shipment by sea
The exporter company sends the set of bills of lading, English invoice, package list and origin to the buyer company via international courier companies after the sea shipment. According to the country where the buyer is located, the sending of documents such as A.TR, EUR.1 is important for the buyer to benefit from the tax exemptions.

5b- Road shipments
In the case of road deliveries, the document set consisting of English invoice, package list and origin is added to the document set for the bill of lading at CMR. In case of road deliveries, the original documents are accompanied by the driver with the vehicle.

6. Stage: Customs and internal shipping operations in the buyer’s country
If the exporter company has agreed with the buyer to deliver the export goods to the consignee’s warehouses, such as the delivery type, CIP or DAP.

For example, if a container is shipped with a ship. In the country of the buyer, the internal transportation process from the port to the address of the buyer is the responsibility of the exporter.

If the delivery type is DDP, customs duties in the buyer’s country, and local taxes such as VAT are also the responsibility of the exporter.

Step 7. Close the Export File
An export operation which has not been subjected to any damage or quality complaint about the products that the shipment process has been completed, the export products to the buyer have been delivered, the export fee has been collected and the exported products have been completely closed.

In the first stage, the receipts and declarations for the export file are sent by the customs counsel to the exporter upon the closing of the declaration.

The exporter company receives copies of the bill of lading and other original documents to be added to its file before sending it to the receiving company. If there are invoices related to the costs that may be incurred, such as freight invoice, ordino fee, succession fee, demurrage, foreign tax payments, then the costs incurred in the beginning and the export costs are compared. At the final stage, the unit costs and the final costs are initially compared.

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